Corrective eye surgery
Corrective eye surgery
Corrective eye surgery or Ocular Surgery is an operation of eye. It is also called orogolomistician surgery and is performed by an ophthalmologist.
Eye Surgery is of several types. Some of these are
- Laser Eye Surgery
- Cataract Surgery
- Glaucoma Surgery
- Vitreo-retinal Surgery
- Corneal Surgery – PK, KPro, PTK, OOKP
- Refractive Surgery – ALK, LASIK, LASEK, PRK, CK, LTK, LRI, AK, RK, HK, ACS, LRP, ICRs
Some other surgical procedures include: Eye Muscle Surgery, Eyelid Surgery, Orbital Surgery and Oculoplastic Surgery.
Laser Eye Surgery
Laser eye surgery is also called refractive surgery. However they refer to different things. Lasers can be used for the treatment of refractive conditions such as to close a retinal tear and radical keratotomy is a refractive surgery which does not require use of laser. Laser eye surgery is sometimes also known as vision correction surgery. People might not need contact lenses or spectacles after laser eye surgery. This surgery reforms the cornea (front part) of the eye, which assists in focusing on things better. The most abundant type of laser surgery performed these days is the LASIK (laser assisted in situ leratonileusis) because it helps affected people acquire 20/20 vision.
Cloudiness, muddiness or opacification forms in the crystalline lens of the eyes as one gets old, or because of trauma, shock or disease. This does not allow light to shape a lucid image of things around us on the retina and is known as a ‘cataract’. Cataracts can lead to loss of permanent eyesight and can cause total blindness. It should be treated with cataract surgery. In cataract surgery, a plastic intraocular lens (IOL) restores the eyesight or optical loss. As cataracts are a common eye disease, therefore cataract surgery or extraction is also a widespread surgery after which rest is highly recommended.
In cataract surgery, surplus of aqueous humor is removed from the eye towards lower intraocular pressure and also by lessening the creation of aqueous humor. In Glaucoma, the natural lens of the eye is removed which is also known as crystalline lens. The cloudy lens is eradicated and is changed with a synthetic lens to reestablish the transparency of the lens.
When optic nerves of eyes get infected, it ends up in a loss of vision and is differentiated or distinguished by an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). This condition is called Glaucoma and is treated by glaucoma surgery. Processes that involve use of glaucoma surgery are as follows:
- Iridotomy- in Iridotomy, openings are made via the iris which is punctured in shape except removing iris tissue. Iridotomy is used to lessen intraocular pressure in the patients of Glaucoma with the use of angle-closure glaucoma.
- Iridectomy is also called surgical iridectomy or corectomy in which a portion of iris tissue is removed.
- Laser trabeculoplasty is an alteration of trabecular meshwork. In this type of Glaucoma Surgery, a laser beam is used to burn areas of trabecular meshwork which are situated near the iris base so that fluid outflow is augmented.
It is a complex type of corrective eye surgery in which there is no acute procedure involved. It is intended to improve the drainage system of the eye so that IOP is reduced systematically. In Canaloplasty Surgery, microcatheter is used in an easy and persistent procedure. An Ophthalmologist produces or creates a little cut in the eye so that he can enter the eye canal. Microcatheter circumnavigates the canal in the region of the iris, and makes the main drainage channel and smaller collector channels large via injecting sterile. Sterile solution is a gel-like material known as viscoelastic. Subsequently a suture is sited within the canal, and catheter is detached. When the canal is opened, the pressure inside the eye diminishes.
Vitreo-retinal surgery is of many types:
- Anterior vitrectomy is to remove the front part of the vitreous tissue. Anterior vitrectomy prevents or treats vitreous loss throughout corneal surgery or cataract surgery; it also eliminates misplaced vitreous in circumstances which include aphakia pupillary clock glaucoma.
- Pars Plana vitreoctomy (PPV) is also called trans pars plana vitrectomy(TPPV) is a process which is used to get rid of vitreous opacities and membranes via pars plana incision. It is commonly combined with several other intraocular processes to treat huge retinal tears, posterios vitreous detachments and tractional retinal detachments.
A type of Vitreo-retinal surgery is pan retinal photocoagulation (PRB) which is used to treat diabetic retinopathy.
Macular hole repair includes partial lamellar sclerocyclochoroidectomy, partial lamellar. sclerouvectomy, partial lamellar sclerochoroidectomy, radial optic neurotomy and posterior. sclereotomy in which a opening is made in the vitrous via the sclera, such as elimination of an outside body or separate retina.
Mascular Translocation Surgery is done via the sclera imbication technique and 360 degree retinotomy.
Corneal eye surgery includes the following:
Penetrating Keratoplasty (PK) Surgery
Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a procedure of corneal surgery or corneal transplantation. First of all, when the patient is brought to the hospital, he or she receives a physical checkup performed by the surgical team in the operating room. Once in the operating room, the patient is instructed to lie down on the operating table and is given a sedative, or general or local anesthesia.
Subsequently the eye is prepared for operation by the surgical team. To keep the eyes open, an eyelid speculum is placed. Time to time some lubrication is given to the patient in his or her eye to prevent it from drying. In young children however, a metal ring is also attached to the sclera so that sclera has support while the procedure is carried on.
After that, a cutting device known as the trephine is placed on the cornea to cut the patient’s cornea. The circular disc of the host’s cornea is removed. Then the trephine is removed and the donor’s graft is taken by the surgeon. Eventually the host cornea is removed from the patient’s eye.
The surgeon then outs the donor’s cornea in the eye of the receiver and stitches it with a running stitch or with multiple interrupted stitches. Afterwards, the anterior chamber is reformed with a sterile solution which is injected by cannula, and it is tested for its water tightness by putting a dye on the exterior wound.
Next, antibiotic drops are inserted in the eye and the eye is patched and the patient is discharged from the operating area. The patient is kept in the recovery region as the effects of anesthesia wear off. Patient can go home now but have to visit the doctor the same day for the first post operative appointment.
Keratoprosthesis (KPro) Surgery
Keratoprosthesis (KPro) is a synthetic corneal surgery or transplantation in which an injured or diseased cornea gets changed with an artificial cornea. This surgery is done on patients so that their vision can be improved or get back to what it was before. Keratoprosthesis can also treat birth defects and can restore their vision; birth defects include injuries, infections and burns.
A lucid plastic with a brilliant tissue tolerance and other optical characteristics is used to make Keratoprotheses. These may be different in size, design, and even usage may differ at various treatment centers. Keratoprosthesis is performed by an ophthalmologist.
Photo-Therapeutic Keratectomy (PTK) Surgery
Photo-Therapeutic Keratectomy is for the corneal surface disease which includes shallow or superficial corneal scars. This is a recurring or persistent epithelial erosion disease and dystrophies of the cornea such as granular dystrophy or lattice dystrophy.
In Photo-Therapeutic Keratectomy, an excimer laser is to treat the above syndromes. It is carried out by the removal of the epithelium (or the external skin of the cornea). The next laser is applied to the outer part of the cornea. The aim of Photo-Therapeutic Keratectomy is to create a clearer and smoother cornea, and not particularly to lessen the need for eyeglasses or contacts lenses. Photo-Therapeutic Keratectomy is a medical treatment and is covered under insurance.
Before Photo-Therapeutic Keratectomy is carried out, a sedative is given to assist the patient in relaxation. Next the area around the eyes is cleared and cleaned with sterile drape. Subsequently, to numb the patient’s eyes, anesthetic eye drops are given only; no needles or syringes are used. Once the eye gets numb, an eyelid holder is kept between the eyelids to prevent from blinking during the process is performed.
Consequently the surgeon will remove the patient’s epithelium which is a thin layer of defensive skin which covers the cornea. The patient is then asked to look straight at the laser which helps in reshaping the cornea. The information which was collected in the preoperative exam programs the laser. Photo-Therapeutic Keratectomy is done within a minute or two, and is solely dependent on the amount of correction required.
During the whole procedure, the surgeon watches the host’s eyes via a microscope. The eyes might be guided for protection. Vision of the patient can get blurred or become hazel for maximum five days. Some discomfort will be experienced as the epithelium gets better. In this condition, pain medication, protective contact lens or eye drops may be used to diminish the discomfort. Many patients get back to their routine activities within three days but the blurriness can occur for utmost six days.
Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis (OOKP) Surgery
Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis is a modern surgery of the cornea. Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis is a successful technique for getting the cornea eyesight back and getting rid of blindness.
Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis was described by Strampelli forty years back, when he used the tooth root and alveolar bone of the patient as a fundamental support to the optical cylinder of the patient. British followers of this technique yielded poor results of this technique. Afterwards it was modified by Falcinelli in a stepwise fashion. Today Falcinelli Osteo-Odonto-Keratoprosthesis is used world wide to receive the best recovery and retention outcomes in comparison with all the keratoprosthesis, especially concerning the dry eye.